Obesity & cardiovascular diseases, Obesity & Weight Loss Management: Food - Diet Compatibility
Biography: Russian biochemist, was born in 1941. In 1964 graduated from the Nizhny Novgorod Research Medical University. He is an assistant professor has been working at the University Biochemistry Department for over 50 years. His scientific interests include general biochemistry, neurochemistry, nutrition, obesity, oxidative phosphorylation coupling and uncoupling.
Abstract: The study of the body mass regulation is very important to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic disorders associated with obesity. The mechanism of obesity is a complex process, it includes violations of nonspecific energy expenditure of a body as a fundamental element in the development of obesity. In recent years, the essential role of bile acids as regulators of energy metabolism has been revealed. Intestinal bile acids act as dietary fat emulsifiers, pancreatic lipase activators and accelerators of fat digestion product absorption. However, when they enter the vessels of the systemic blood circulation, they act as typical steroid hormones that have specific intracellular receptors in target cells. When primary bile acids (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid) and conjugated bile acids (glycocholic, taurochloric, etc) enter the intestine, they are chemically modified by intestinal microbiome enzymes. During the circulation within the enterohepatic cycle, bile acids partially penetrate into the vessels of the systemic circulation and become steroid hormones carried by serum albumin. The concentration of bile acids in the peripheral blood of a healthy person varies widely depending on the stage of digestion. The main receptors of bile acids are the farnesoid X receptor, the pregnane X receptor (PXR), the vitamin D receptor (VDR), the GLP 1 receptor, the Takeda G protein receptor 5 (TGR5 ), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and some others.
The level of expression of genes encoding the receptors changes in some pathological states. The interaction of bile acids with these receptors causes the following regulatory effects:
* uncoupling effect
* stimulation of uncoupling protein (UCP) production
* activation of adipocyte browning and beijing
* repression of gene transcription of gluconeogenesis enzymes
* stimulation of nonshivering thermogenesis
* inhibition of lipogenesis and synthesis of VLDL
* stimulation of β-oxidation of fatty acids
* immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effect
* gut microbiome regulation.
It prevents the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, liver steatosis, cardiovascular pathology, and some other diseases.
Consequently, sites of production of bile acids, their transport, interactions with the intestinal microbiota as well as various receptors are potential targets for developing new methods to prevent and treat obesity and associated pathology.
Russian biochemist, was born in 1941. In 1964 graduated from the Privolzhsky Research Medical University. He is an assistant professor has been working at the University Biochemistry Department for over 50 years. His scientific interests include general biochemistry, neurochemistry, nutrition, obesity, oxidative phosphorylation coupling and uncoupling.
Biography: Maria Magdalena Coman, PhD is a researcher and lab responsible at Synbiotec Srl, University of Camerino Spin-off. She completed the first program (2013) and the second program (2017) of PhD in Life Sciences and Public Health (Biology) - ONE HEALTH: Research, Development and Application of Novel Probiotics and Prebiotics in Human and Animal Health. During her studies and research activities, she was involved in several national and international research collaborations, for innovation and investigation on probiotic bacteria and prebiotics to design new products for human and animal health.
Abstract: The gut microbiota influence whole-body metabolism by affecting energy balance and inflammation – gut barrier function, but also integrate central food intake regulatory signals and thereby increase body weight. Pivotal studies have demonstrated that manipulation of the gut microbiota and its metabolic pathways can affect host’s adiposity and metabolism . Related to obesity management an animal model has been used and the first aim of the study was to investigate whether rats fed on Cafeteria diet (high-salt, high-fat, energy dense foods) develop changes in the gut microbiota compared to rats fed on Standard Chow diet (CHOW). The second aim was to assess the effect of daily probiotic administration on gut microbiota of rats fed on Standard or Cafeteria diet (CAF).
Twenty-seven Wistar male rats were divided into three groups: CHOW rats (control group), CAF rats and CAF rats supplemented with probiotic (CAF+P). Lactobacillus plantarum IMC 510 (Synbiotec Srl., Camerino, Italy) [2, 3] was administered once a day (108 cells/die) for 84 days. Microbiota composition was assessed on faecal samples collected at different time points by Real-Time PCR. Rats weight and food consumption were measured every day. The study, on the first step, revealed that the obesity-induced Cafeteria diet, cause an increase in Firmicutes and a decrease in Bacteroidetes in obese rats. In the second study step, a Two-Way ANOVA showed a significant difference in body weight among the groups [F(1,28)=5.27; P<0.05] and after 4 days, post-hoc test showed that the average body weight CAF rats began to be significantly higher compared to CHOW rats (P<0.05). After 84 days, CAF+P rats showed 12% of reduction in body weight compared to the CAF counterpart. CAF caused a significant decrease in Bacteroidetes-Prevotella-Porphyromonas spp. concentration related to the obesity status, while the probiotic treatment significantly increased Lactobacillus spp. after 3 weeks of follow-up in CAF+P rats and also Bifidobacterium spp. after 84 days and 3 weeks of follow-up in CAF+P rats.
Evidence suggests a complex relationship between the gut microbiota, host’s metabolic pathways, immune system, adipose tissue, genetic factors, and host’s behaviours and diet. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotic treatment or dietary intervention can affect body weight, influence glucose and fat metabolism, improve insulin sensitivity and reduce chronic systemic inflammation . The probiotic supplements might therefore constitute a valuable support in obesity treatment. Further researches are required to better investigate how probiotic reduce the increase of body weight in CAF+P.
Prevention & Control of Obesity, Gynecology & Obstetrics
Biography: Ms. Mayuko Yamakawa is a 5th grade undergraduate student who is working towards becoming a Medical Doctor in Mie University in Japan. She is also working for nutrition science, especially about the therapeutic potentials of several seaweeds against obesity, using zebrafish models in Dr. Shimada's group since November 2016. She is preparing for her first-authorship paper and already have presentations in several domestic conferences.
Abstract: Seaweed, or marine macroalgae, is known for its high content of minerals and specific vitamins, but it also contains bioactive molecules such as polysaccharides, proteins, peptides, lipids, and polyphenols, making it a novel source of potential compounds for human health applications, including prevention of obesity. While consumption of whole seaweed is widely popular in Asia, limited numbers of consumers in several Western countries (e.g. Ireland, Scotland, Spain, France, Iceland, and Canada) use the red seaweed Atlantic dulse, Palmaria palmata. And more recently, the closely related Pacific dulse, Palmaria mollis (PM), has recently become popular as foodstuffs due to their potential as a source of biofunctional molecules and antioxidant ingredients, in addition to their bacon-like taste.
We previously performed PM feeding experiments to diet-induced obese (DIO) zebrafish and mouse models, and found that PM possesses strong lipid-lowering property to improve hepatic steatosis and visceral adiposity for the first time . In this study, to discover bioactive constituent of PM, we performed mouse preadipocytes (3T3-L1 cells) differentiation assay and zebrafish obesogenic test with PM extracts and fractions. For zebrafish test, we fed high-fat diet to young zebrafish to increase visceral adiposity with or without PM compounds in combination with NileRed adipose staining  as a small-scale screening. As a result, we identified that fucoxanthin (FXT) and its derivatives are the richest in the adipolytic fraction of PM (fraction 5) using the Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition, the gene expression analysis revealed that the fraction 5 and pure FXT downregulates genes involved in adipocyte late differentiation (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma pathway), and upregulates genes involved in thermogenesis (uncoupling protein 1 pathway).
In summary, we discover for the first time that bioactive constituents of PM are FXT and its derivatives using zebrafish testing in combination with cell-based assay.
Biography: Dr. Liqing Zang received the Bachelor of Medicine degree in Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China, in 2000. She received the Ph. D. degree in Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University, Japan, in 2012. She visited Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics in Vanderbilt University, USA, in 2017. She is now an assistant professor in Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Japan. Her research theme includes develop zebrafish disease models for obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. She is also working on the assessment of natural products’ potential functions using zebrafish and mouse.
Abstract: Obesity is one of the most challenging public health problems in developed countries, and is also a matter of growing concern in developing countries. It is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders and certain types of cancers. In recent years, the potential of natural products has been focused as anti-obesity agents with minimal side effects. We have created an obese zebrafish model and have proved that this model is a powerful tool to assess anti-obesity functions and reveal therapeutic mechanisms of natural products.
In this study, we developed a new system to assess the anti-obesity effects of natural products. Firstly, we performed zebrafish obesogenic test as the first screening to exam the effects of test materials on adipose tissue dynamics in live larvae. This test uses Nile Red fluorescent probe to detect the adipocyte lipid droplets and the volume change of adipocyte tissue can be rapidly quantified within 3 days. Next, the test materials that prevented the adipocyte lipid storage in larvae were picked up to the validation assays using our adult obese zebrafish. After 3 weeks of long-term treatment, a systemic assessment for anti-obesity effects were performed, including BMI, plasma triglyceride, plasma total cholesterol, visceral adipose tissue volume and hepatic lipid accumulation. As the result, in a total of 42 natural products, we detected that six compounds significantly decreased plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Finally, we performed transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) of liver tissues to clarify the therapeutic mechanisms of hit compounds against obesity. Our study demonstrated that this method is suitable and valuable for screening natural products/ compounds to characterize potentially obesogenic or anti-obesogenic effects.
Biography: I am interested in nutritional science especially in obesity, diabetes and natural products. My expertise is using state of the art technologies to conduct phenotype-based in vivo screening using zebrafish, in combination with culture cells and mouse experiments, and transcriptome analysis.
2017- : Zebrafish Drug Screening Center, Director.
2016- : Department of Integrative Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine. Assistant Professor (PI).
2016- : Department of Bioinformatics, Advanced Science Research Promotion Center.
2004-2013: Department of Pharmacogenomics, Graduate School of Medicine. Assistant professor in the group of Prof. Toshio Tanaka.
Abstract: T2DM is a metabolic disorder, which is primarily caused by obesity-induced insulin resistance, and more than 90% of people with T2DM are overweight or obese. In addition, obesity and T2DM are associated with specific changes in the gut microbiota composition, which affects energy absorption and its application from diets. For example, many studies have found that T2DM patients have a reduced abundance of butyrate-producing species, leading to a low-grade inflammation in the gut . This has been reported in people of different races, ethnicities and after controlling for the effect of anti-diabetic drugs on the gut microbiome .
Over these recent decades, zebrafish has emerged as a pre-eminent vertebrate model organism for biomedical research. The number of microbiota related studies in zebrafish are still limited but growing, in developmental and physiological microbiology, colitis models, effects of antibiotics and immune responses. We previously created a diet-induced T2DM model of zebrafish (T2DM zebrafish), which shows glucose intolerance and insulin resistance with common obese phenotypes (body weight increase, visceral adiposity, hepatic steatosis and dyslipidaemia) . This zebrafish model also shares common pathological transcriptome pathways associated with human T2DM, and shows improvement with anti-diabetic medications (metformin and glibenclamide).
To further evaluate the possibility of utilizing T2DM zebrafish as a model for human gut microbiota in T2DM, we conducted deep sequencing of 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable regions and compared T2DM-induced microbiota alternations between zebrafish and humans, and imputed a functional profile using predictive metagenomic tools. While control and T2DM zebrafish were fed with the same kind of feed, the gut microbiota in T2DM group was less diverse than that of the control. Predictive metagenomics profiling using PICRUSt revealed functional alternation of the KEGG pathways in T2DM zebrafish. Several amino acid (arginine, proline and phenylalanine) and butyrate metabolism pathways were downregulated, and fructose and BCAA pathways were upregulated in the T2DM group, similar to what has been previously reported in humans. In addition, we validated the alteration of these metabolites in zebrafish faeces and plasma using LC-MS/MS.
In summary, we profiled the gut microbiome in T2DM zebrafish, which revealed functional similarities in gut bacterial environments between these zebrafish and T2DM affected humans. T2DM zebrafish can become an alternative model organism to study host-bacterial interactions in human obesity and related diseases.
Biography: Akira Kanda
Affiliation: Council of leaders for parenteral and enteral nutrition
Japan Health Fitness Programmers' Association
Titles: PhD (Health Sciences), PhD (Medicine)
Qualification: Health Fitness Programmer
Specialties: Public health, Clinical Epidemiology
Research Interests: Prevention and control of obesity
Interest: To foster positive health behaviour change through the power of modern music and dance
Languages: Japanese, English
Abstract: Recently significant numbers of young and middle-aged Japanese females pursue unhealthy slimming practices advocated by the mass media. The Japanese National Nutrition Survey 2016 revealed that the demographic of 20-29 years old females had both the lowest calorie consumption (1,632 kcal/day) and undertook the least amount of physical activity (9.9 % of their age group). Insufficient intake of calories promotes the slower passage of food through the digestive tract and can induce edema and constipation. Thus, I developed an exercise regime including sit-ups combined with turns and jumps inspired by classic ballet figures on a floor of 1 x 1 square metres. This routine interposes jump variations of high metabolic equivalents producing feelings of joyousness and exuberance. A trial of a 20-minute exercise routine to 60 female students revealed consumption of 90-100 kcal/20 min. 31 students felt cheerful or joyous after the exercise. A medium degree of syncopation has been demonstrated to elicit the strongest motivation to movement and induce the greatest pleasure in dance (Witek, 2014). My ambition is to further analyse the combination of exercise with syncopated movement to promote enhanced states of well-being.
Quality of Foods & Nutritional Value
Biography: Dr Zhongyi Li obtained his PhD at Australian National University in 1995 and joined CSIRO in 1998. He has led research in identifying genetic loci involved in starch biosynthesis in cereals, and their functions in manipulating cereal grain compositions.Dr Li was appointed as Senior Principal Research Scientist in CSIRO Agriculture and Food in 2017 and is based in Canberra.
His researches has led to discover the genetic controlling for BARLEYmax, a high fibre and high resistant starch barley wholegrain, a high amylose rice grain and a high dietary fibre wheat grain. Consumption of BARLEYmax wholegrain is able to help reduce the risk of several chronic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. The key nutritional features of BARLEYmax wholegrain is that it has very high levels of total dietary fibre, resistant starch and beta glucans. It has a low glycaemic index.Dr Li has published 90 refereed research journal articles and is co-inventor on 12 patent applications.
Abstract: Chronic disorder diseases are major health issues including cardiovascular disease, Type II diabetes, overweight and colorectal cancer. These four diseases cost Australia more than $8 billion annually for medical treatments. The global cost of diabetes and colorectal cancer is now $1.1 trillion and $42 billion per year respectively. Consumption of wholegrain foods having significant fibreis strongly recommended for reducing the risks of these chronic disorder diseases. Our work successfully identified genetic loci in barley and wheat involved with starch synthesis, whose combination produces cereal grains containing high resistant starch, new fermentable fibre and polysaccharide traits. The animal and human trials showed that these new grains benefit for gut health increasing the short fatty acids, decreasing pH values and altering the microbial profile.Our work indicates that these novel grains potentially have significant health benefits to consumers over and above the health benefits from consuming the standard wholegrains. Our research has led to new markets for Australian cereals and it has the potential to generate significant economic and health benefits.
The results of generating the novel cereal grains and its health benefits, and their commercial application will be presented and discussed.
Food Science & Technology
Biography: Dr. Karzan T.Mahmood is an assistant prof. in dairy biotechnology in the Food Science and Human Nutrition Dept. College of Agricultural Sciences at Sulaimani University; he has more than 12 years ofeducationexperience in both under and postgraduate students in the college. He has interestedin dairy sciences and he was published some research in the field of enzyme application in dairy sciences and technology.
Karzan was worked as a head of food science department for a short period before he working as a Dean of the college of Agricultural Sciences since 2015.
Abstract: Skimmed Buffalo’s milk was used for yogurt production by MTGase enzyme for studying the effect of enzymatic cross-linking on some physiochemical and sensory properties of it. The results show that the fat % in the milk was similar to that should be in the skim milk, but the water content is higher and the SNF was . The results showed that the pH and acidity of yogurt fermentation time prolonged (more than 4 h.) with increasing TGase concentration. On the other hand, pH value of the samples decreased continuously throughout storage period in a similar way for all samples, pH values for yogurt samples after 7 days ranged from 4.64 to 4.82 and decreased during the storage time until it reached 4.2 and 4.35 at the end time of storage (28 days) for control samples and samples treated with 5 U of enzyme respectively, and the similar changes were observed in the level of acidity during storage time. For some physical properties, results indicated that the higher enzyme concentration has lower syneresis, 36% whey was separated after 28 day of storage in the samples treated with 5U.gm-1 protein enzyme compared with 42% of control samples. Water holding capacity was determined and it reached 58% and 49% for samples treated with 5U of enzyme and control samples respectively, at the end of storage time (28 days). The sensory evaluation of the control and enzyme treated samples were studied and the results are showed that the significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were observed among treatments, the highest score was recorded for most treated sample with 4 and 5 U of enzyme after 3-4 weeks of storage.
Biography: will be updated soon..
Abstract: Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human diseases because they contain chemical components of therapeutic value. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008, more than 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare needs.
Mentha piperita, (Fam. Lamiaceae) is the species found in Morocco. The leaf essential oil of M. piperita has been reported in varying details from Russian , India  and Greece .Essential oils and their components are gaining increasing interest because of their relatively safe status, their wide acceptance by consumers, and their exploitation for potential multi-purpose functional use. Essential oils are valuable natural products used as raw materials in many fields, including perfumes, cosmetics, aromatherapy, phototherapy, spices and nutrition .
The present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Mentha piperita from Morocco. Mentha species from the Lamiaceae family are widely distributed in Morocco and commonly used as herbal tea, flavoring agent and medicinal plant. In this stud y, the essential oils of Mentha piperita collected in the region of Fez (Morocco) were obtained by hydro-distillation of the leaves and analysed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry system (GC/MS) for their chemical composition. The antioxidant activity of essential oils against DPPH radical was determined in vitro by treated with different concentrations of essential oil and vitamin C as standard antioxidant compound. The percentages of DPPH inhibition and IC50 were recorded. Thirty compounds were identified in leaves oil representing 42.39% of the total oil composition. The yield of essential oil of Mentha piperita was 2.02% and the major compound in the leaves was: Menthone (14.56%) followed by menthol (7.01%), menthyl acetate (2.98%), menthofuran (2.01%), 1,8-cineole (1.46%) and isomenthone (1.02%). The radical scavenging activity (% inhibition) of the essential oil from Mentha piperita was the highest (75.98± 2.57%) at the concentration of 110µg/ml and the IC50 values of these plant extracts were 62.10µg/ml.
Keywords: Antioxidant screening, composition, essential oil Mentha piperita, Fez and Morocco.
Biography: Firuze Ergin, was born in Antalya, Turkey on 17th October 1988. She completed her B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Food Engineering from Pamukkale University and Akdeniz University, Turkey, respectively. Afterwards she started her PhD education in 2014 and she has worked as a research assistant at Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Akdeniz University, since in 2015. Her studies focuse on dairy technology, probiotic dairy products, bacteriophages and microencapsulation technology.
Abstract: In recent years, consumption of probiotic dairy products has increased due to their nutritive value and positive health properties. Probiotic microorganisms must reach the intestine alive and in enough numbers in order to have beneficial effects on health. Studies are carried out to preserve the viability of probiotic microorganisms by using encapsulation technique to prevent the decrease in the number of probiotic microorganisms, and to select strains resistant to adverse environmental conditions. In this work, the amount of whey protein isolate to be used in encapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 20079 with electrospraying method and as well as the variables (applied voltage, distance) of the capsule production method were optimized by the Response Surface Method. Probiotic ice cream samples produced with L. acidophilus capsules were stored at -20°C for 90 days, and the samples were passed through a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal system on days 1, 45 and 90 of the storage and the viability of L. acidophilus DSM 20079 was determined.
From the data obtained in the study resulted that the optimum conditions with the highest capsule efficiency and resistance of L. acidophilus to pH 2.0 (survival rate%) were found to be 24.8% of the concentration of whey isolate, 15.8 kV of the voltage and 9.5 cm of the plate distance, while the optimum conditions for the smallest capsule size were 15.0% of the whey isolate concentration, 15.0 kV of the voltage and 15.0 cm of the plate distance. It was determined that the reduction ratio of free L. acidophilus used in the production of probiotic ice cream samples which were control group was lower than encapsulated L. acidophilus used in the production of probiotic ice cream samples. During the passage through the gastrointestinal system, the counts of L. acidophilus in the probiotic ice cream decreased, however L. acidophilus in all ice cream samples survived at the required levels (>106 cfu/g) at the end of the passage through the gastrointestinal system.
Biography: Will be updated soon..
Abstract: A gel was obtained and characterized from Aloe vera for obtaining healthy, low calorie beverages, where their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated using ascorbic acid as a regulator of pH at different concentrations, the yield of this gel to two extraction treatments, cut and filleted where the filleted gel presented a 95.4% extracted weight yield and physicochemical characteristics of stable pH, acidity and ºBrix for a shelf life of 60 days stabilized with 3% w / w ascorbic acid. The absolute viscosity of the extracted gel was influenced by the storage time and the temperature used in the activated carbon filtration process in an inversely proportional relation. Three beverages were obtained from mixtures of crystals and two equally processed tropical fruits (Anacardium occidentale) and (Malpighia emarginata). Objective of the research was to obtain a healthy drink, low in calories and antioxidants with tropical fruits and Aloe Vera
Key words: Healthy drinks, aloe, performance, shelf life.
Current Research in Nutrition and Dietetics
Biography: will be updated soon..
Abstract: As consumer awarenessgrows, there is an increasingneedforthedevelopment of reliable, health-promotingfunctionalfoodswithprovenphysiologicaleffects. Foodtrendsaretailoredbyhealth-consciousconsumers, butthere is notenoughscientificevidencetobe takenintoconsiderationformakinga deliberate and prudent decision. Ourcurrenteffortsaimataccomplishment of reliable human clinicalstudiesfill inthisexistinggap.
The producthavingbeeninvolved in thestudies is foresthoneybasedfood, enrichedwithpumpkin, seabuckthorn and inulin. Forest honey, pumpkin, seabuckthorn and inulinmight be characterisedbyscientificallyproven,beneficialphysiologicaleffects. The firstthreementionedsubstancescontaina highlevel of polyphenolic and carotenoidecompoundswithconsiderableantioxidanteffect, besidesnumerousvitamins, minerals and othernutrients. In additiontothis, inulin is exhibitsprebioticproperties. Theseingredientsserveasthebasisfor a novel, specificfunctionalfood,whosecomplex, human physiologicaleffectsarecontrolled/tested/monitoredby a double-blind, self-controlled, randomized, human clinicaltrial.
Healthy men and womenvolunteersbetween 18-65 years, complyingwiththecriteria of inclusion and exclusionwereinvolved in thestudyfor 13 weeks. During thetrialtheyconsumedcontrolforesthoney and enriched, functionalforesthoneyfor 5-5 weeksunderwell-determined, blindedconditions. The twostudyperiodswereseparatedby a three-week-longwashoutperiod. During thetrialtherelevantchemical and hematologicalproperties ofthebloodsampleswereinvestigated(Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Cl, Fe, totalcholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglyceride, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin, HbA1c, BUN, creatinine, eGFR, albumin, total protein, completebloodcount). The safety of theproductwasmonitoredby ECG and physicalexamination and bytracingvitalsigns. Troughvariousquestionnaires we alsoassessedthechanges in thequality of life, vitality, generalwell-being, endurance of volunteers, incidence of minor infections, gastrointestinaltolerability of theproduct, and changes in thefrequencyand consistency of stool. In terms of quality of life measurement, we usedtheEuroQol EQ-5D, theHamiltonAnxietyRatingScale, theSubjectiveVitalityScale, and the Beck DepressionInventory.
The FoodConsumptionFrequencySurvey and theNutritionRelated,Lifestyle and HealthgQuestionnairefollowedthefactorsinfluencingtheresults and theparameters during theexamination in a complexway, whiletheGastrointestinalSymptomQuestionnaireprovided a thoroughpictureaboutthetolerability of theproduct in thegastrointestinaltract. The resultswereobtainedsubsequenttoconducting astatisticalanalysisandtakingintoconsiderationthelifestyle and nutritionhabits of thevolunteers.